“(Il)literacy” by Kif Augustine

Can she read? No. Can he write? No.  The United States decennial census repeated the questions, once in 1900 for my great-grandmother Victoria Walkowiak and twice in 1900 and 1910 for my great-grandfather Stanley Augustyn before their early deaths nine years apart. In 1903, puerperal fever burned out Victoria’s child-bearing body, six births in fewer […]
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